Internal Medicine


Lymphangiectasia is a type of intestinal disorder that affects dogs of any age and breed, There are tiny lymphatic vessels within the small intestine that are important in absorbing nutrients from the intestinal tract. In lymphangiectasia, these lymphatics become atrophied (shriveled up) or plugged with abnormal cells such as white blood cells or cancer cell. When this happens, the body is deprived of proteins, fats and fat-soluble vitamins. This in turn, also causes abnormal levels of hormones and blood clotting factors. Read more about Lymphangiectasia

Cholangiohepatitis in Cats

What is Cholangiohepatitis?

Cholangiohepatitis is a common form of liver disease that can affect cats of any age or breed. Cats with this disease develop inflammation of their liver and bile ducts (small vessels within the liver) that is sometimes associated with other concurrent diseases. The inflammation is caused by an invasion from the bloodstream of different types of white blood cells that are active in the immune system. Cholangiohepatitis is classified as either an acute disease (termed suppurative) or a chronic disease (non-suppurative). Younger male cats seem to get acute cholangiohepatitis more commonly than female cats.
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Megacolon in Cats

A cat’s gastrointestinal (GI) tract consists of a tube that runs from the mouth to the anus. Its function is to digest food and absorb nutrients into the body. The stomach is a dilated part of the GI tract that produces acids, which helps with the initial breakdown of proteins. The small intestine extends from the stomach to the colon and serves to further breakdown food into absorbable nutrients. The colon has a larger diameter than the small intestine and is the reservoir for stool; it serves as a water absorber and is the site for the production of certain vitamins by bacteria. The intestinal wall consists of a layer of muscle that propels feces out of the body during bowel movements. Small collections of nerves called Auerbach’s complexes are located within the muscle layer that stimulates the muscle to contract. Read more about Megacolon in Cats

Feline Urethral Obstruction ("Blocked Cat")

Urethral obstructions are life-threatening emergencies that can occur with our pets.  They commonly occur in male cats due to the urethra being narrower than in females.  Urethral obstructions can be caused by plugs (a mix of mucus, crystals and inflammatory cells), stones, blood clots, masses or congenital defects.  Environment and stress can also play a role in cats becoming obstructed as stressed cats can have a greater inflammatory response and increased urethral spasms.  Read more about Feline Urethral Obstruction ("Blocked Cat")

Perineal Hernias

Hernias are defects or weaknesses in the muscles that keep the organs such as the intestines, bladder and stomach in the abdomen. The rectum and anus are held in place by five muscles, that are altogether called the pelvic diaphragm. Perineal hernias develop on one or both sides of the anus due to weakness in the muscles that constitute the pelvic diaphragm. Seen in both dogs and cats, perineal hernias describe the displacement of pelvic and abdominal organs (rectum, prostate, bladder or fat) into the perineal region alongside the anus. Read more about Perineal Hernias

Addison’s Disease

Addison's disease, known by the medical term hypoadrenocorticism, is a disorder of the adrenal glands that causes hormonal imbalances in the body. The condition is named after Thomas Addison, a British scientist who is credited for being the first person to demonstrate that adrenal glands are necessary for life.

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Bladder Tumors - TCC


Our pets’ urinary systems function much like those of humans. They consist of the kidneys, the ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra. The kidneys filter the blood to remove wastes from the bloodstream, and also maintain the electrolyte, or salt, balance of the body. That waste then becomes urine, and travels through the ureters to the bladder, which is able to expand thanks to the transitional cells that make up its lining and its muscular wall. When an animal urinates, the urine passes out of the body through the urethra.

The most common type of urinary bladder cancer in dogs is transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) - a tumor of the cells that line the bladder. Most tumors are classified as intermediate to high-grade infiltrative bladder tumors at the time of diagnosis.

TCC can also arise in the ureters, urethra, prostate, or vagina and can spread (metastasize) to the lungs, lymph nodes, bones, or other organs. Approximately 20% of dogs with bladder cancer have metastases at the time of diagnosis. Other less common types of tumors of the bladder cancer of the urinary tract may include leiomyosarcomas and fibrosarcomas. Read more about Bladder Tumors - TCC